Agriculture and Animal Husbandry

Notes to remember
The science of producing and using plants for food, fuel, feed, fibre and fertilizer is referred to be as Agronomy.
Indian farming is moreover a diversified farming.
Intercropping is a system of multiple cropping.
Phule-Pragati is a improved variety of groundnut.
The transfer of pollens from anthers to receptive stigma is pollination.
Emasculation procedure is adopted before pollination is to be carried out.
In India, co-operative banks have the highest share in the disbursement of credit to agriculture and allied activites.
Cotton crops production has been exceeding target since 2004-05 in India, but its growers have been committing suicide in large numbers in many parts of the country every year.
Procurement of food grains at the support prices:
1) ensures stability in farm prices.
2) ensures remunerative prices to farmers.
3) helps building public stocks of food grains.
The application of fertilizers through the irrigation water is known as fertigation.
Artificial application of water to the crop plants is known as irrigation. The irrigation is measured in terms of hectare-cm.
Due to flooding method of irrigation, the following consequences can be seen:
1) soils get eroded and losses its texture.
2) soils get hard panned.
3) soil profile gets hampered.
The food chain which is from the grasshopper and crops as producers and snakes and frogs as secondary and tertiary consumers is an example of grassland ecosystem.
Azotobactor is a free living bacteria that helps in nitrogen fixation.
Decomposer becomes the last part of the food chain, and it is considered to be the ultimate agency which breaks down complex matter into simpler one and feeds on them.
The remote sensing technique is specially meant for air photography of ground vegetation and is utilized for preparing soil fertility maps.
Any unconfined portion of atmosphere to which the general public has an easy access is to be known as ambient air.
The wilt disease is a hazardous crop plant disease, which is hard to identify in the early stage. Fusarium oxysporium is the casual organism of the disease.
Some of the potatoes, we can see has green spots on it. The symptom is called as greening in potato.
In the production of bread, a very specific variety of wheat is used. This is called as emmer wheat. Glutene is a main ingredient of this wheat variety.
Indian economy is wholly dependent upon the agriculture. Agriculture is considered as a mother industry for all the industries. Out of the total land, 48% of land is under consideration.
Most of the soils of the coastal area are the red or lateritic soils. These soils are poor in retention of the nutrients and higher leaching losses can be seen here. Paddy crops are considered to be suitable in these type of soils.
The cropping system in which the crops are grown in such a way that the two or more than two crops are grown on same piece of land at a unit period of time is known to be as mixed cropping.
The very famous variety that is used for eating and making the food products. This variety is known as 'Thompson seedless'. This improved variety of crop belongs to Grape.
The government has taken an initiative on the avoidance of the losses in the post harvest of the horticultural produce. One of such nodal governmental organisation is working in this context. The governmental agency 'National Horticulture Board of India' works as a father institution for the horticultural crops.
The famous genetically modified crop associated with cotton is in recent news. Bt cotton has failed to prove itself in some parts of this transgenic crop is, it is susceptible to the secondary pests.
The meteorological instrument by which the speed of the wind can be measured is Robinson cup anemometer.
The mycoplasma like organism by which the leaf spot in the brinjal is caused by Alternaria and Cercospora.
The insecticides that can be used to control the disease vector of little leaf are:
1) Malathion
2) Dimethoate
3) Methyldemetop
Murrah buffalo is called as 'black gold' in Haryana.
Function of leghaemoglobin in nitrogen fixation is absorption of oxygen.
Clostridium is the non-symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria.
Rose, Bryophyllum, Marigold plants can be multiplied by cuttings.
Bougainvillea, Carnation, Grape plants are propagated by stem cuttings.
Jasmine, sugarcane, turmeric are propagated by vegetative method.
Vegetative propagation by stem cutting generally applies to sugarcane.
Pea / legumes enrich soil with nitrogen.
The germplasm is required for the propagation of plants and animals. Germplasm is the seed or tissues for breeding or egg and sperm repositary.
Azotobacter is one of the nitrogen fixing bacteria used as biofertilizers.
Biofertilizers can be used along with organic fertilizers.
During the year 2009-10, agriculture, forestry and fishing sectors experience negative growth rate in India.
There are two stages in the entire life cycle of the plant. One of such is a vegetative stage. In this stage, the flowering in case of foodgrain crops stops. This stage is known as determinate stage.
The regrowth of the crops is done in case of various crop plants such as sugarcane, etc with the technique called as rationing.
Harvest index can be assessed by using empirical equation:

A = (economic production)/(biomass production)
Saline soils are reclaimed by using gypsum.
The sorghum is taken as a multicut Pusa Chari-2, MP Chari-2, MP-Chari are multicut varieties.
UP-Chari-1 is not a multicut variety.
Karan-3 variety of barley is huskless variety.
Molybdenum plays a vital role in the nitrogen metabolism.
In the context of ecosystem productivity, marine up-welling zones are important as they increase the marine productivity by bringing the
1) nutrients to the surface.
2) bottom dwelling organisms to the surface.
The storage of food grains is a crucial part in agroproducts and its conservation. Here, the major fungi that affect the food grains in storage is Mucor.
The sequence of C4 plants in respect to the features is:
Sugarcane - Maize - Sudangrass - Bajra
Pusa Giant Napier is the perennial variety of elephant grass (Napier grass).
The casual organism of black stem root of wheat is Puccinia graminis tritici.
Tillage is the operation which is carried out for having good soil tilth.
The modern concepts of tillage are minimum tillage, stubble mulch tillage and zero tillage.
Ploughing is not the modern concept of tillage.
Diseases like green ear, ergot and rust are related to Bajra.
Groundnut, sesame, pearl millet are predominantly rainfed crops.
In micro-irrigation, fertilizer/nutrient loss can be reduced.

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