Articles of the Indian Constitution

Union and its territory

Article no. 
1Name and territory of the union.
2Admission or establishment of new states.
2ASikkim to be associated with the union (repealed).
3Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing states.
4Laws made under article 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the Fourth Schedules and supplement, incidental or consequential matters.


Article no. 
5Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution.
6Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan.
7Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan.
8Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residing outside India.
9Persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign state not to be citizens.
10Continuance of the rights of citizenship.
11Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.

Fundamental Rights

Article no. 
12Definition of state
13Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.
14Equality before law.
15Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.
16Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.
17Abolition of untouchability.
18Abolition of titles.
19Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech etc.
20Protection in respect of conviction for offences.
21Protection of life and personal liberty.
21ARight of elementary education.
22Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.
23Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.
24Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc.
25Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion.
26Freedom to manage religious affairs.
27Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion.
28Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions.
29Protection of interest of minorities.
30Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.
31 Compulsory acquisition of property (repealed).
31ASaving of laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc.
31BValidation of certain acts and regulations.
31CSaving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles.
31DSaving of laws in respect of anti-national activities (Repealed)
32Remedies for enforcement of fundamental rights including writs.
32AConstitutional validity of State laws not to be considered in proceedings under article 32 (repealed)
33Power of Parliament to modify the fundamental rights in their application to forces, etc.
34Restriction on fundamental rights while martial law is in force in any area.
35Legislation to give effect to some of the provisions of fundamental rights.

Directive principles of state policy

Article no. 
36Definition of state
37Application of the directive principles.
38State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people.
39Certain principles of policy to be followed by the state.
39AEqual justice and free legal aid.
40Organisation of village panchayats.
41Right to work, to education, and to public assistance in certain cases.
42Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.
43Living wage, etc, for workers
43A Participation of workers in management of industries.
43BPromotion of co-operative societies.
44Uniform civil code for citizens.
45Provision for early childhood care and education of children below the age of six years.
46Promotion of educational and economic interests of scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other weaker sections.
47Duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.
48Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandary.
48AProtection and improvement of environment and safeguard of forces and wild life.
49Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance.
50Separation of judiciary from executive.
51 Promotion of international peace and security.

Fundamental Duties

Article no. 
51AFundamental Duties

President and Vice-President

Article no. 
52The President of India
53Executive power of the union.
54Election of the President
55Manner of election of President
56Term of office of President
57Eligibility of re-election
58Qualifications for election as President
59Conditions of President's office
60Oath or affirmation by the President
61Procedure for impeachment of the President
62Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy.
63The Vice President of India
64The Vice President to be ex-officio chairman of the council of states.
65The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions during casual vacancies in the office, or during the absence of President.
66Election of Vice-President
67Term of office of Vice President
68Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of Vice President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy.
69Oath and affirmation by the Vice President
70Discharge of President's functions in other contingencies.
71Matters relating to or connected with the election of a President or Vice-President.
72Power of President to grant pardons, etc, and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases.
73Extent of executive power of the Union

Union Ministers and Attorney General

Article no. 
74Council of ministers to aid and advise President.
75Other provisions as to ministers.
76Attorney General for India.
77Conduct of the business of the Government of India.
78Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President etc.


Article no. 
79Constitution of Parliament.
80Composition of the council of states.
81Composition of the House of the people.
82Readjustment after each census.
83Duration of Houses of Parliament.
84Qualification for membership of Parliament.
85Sessions of Parliament, prorogation and dissolution.
86Right of President to address and send messages to Houses.
87Special address by the President.
88Rights of ministers and Attorney General with respect to Houses.
89The chairman and deputy chairman of the council of states.
90Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the office of deputy chairman.
91Powers of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Chairman.
92 The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration.
93The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of the people.
94Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker.
95 Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform duties of the office of, or to act as, Speaker.
96The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration.
97Salaries and allowances of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman and the Speaker and Deputy Speaker.
98Secretariat of Parliament.
99Oath or affirmation by members.
100Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum.
101Vacation of seats.
102Disqualifications for membership.
103Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members.
104Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under Article 99 or when not qualified or when disqualified.
105Powers, privileges, etc of the Houses of Parliament and of the members and committees thereof.
106Salaries and allowances of members.
107Provisions as to introduction and passing of bills.
108Joint sitting of both Houses in certain cases.
109Special procedure in respect to money bills.
110Definition of 'money bills.'
111Assent to bills.
112Annual financial statement (budget)
113Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimates.
114Appropriation bills.
115Supplementary, additional or excess grants.
116Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.
117Special provisions as to financial bills.
118Rules of procedure.
119Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial business.
120Language to be used in Parliament.
121Restriction on discussion in Parliament.
122Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Parliament.
123Power of President to promulgate ordinances during recess of Parliament.

Supreme Court

Article no. 
124Establishment and Constitution of Supreme Court.
124ANational Judicial Appointment Commission.
124BFunctions of Commission.
124CPower of Parliament to make law.
125Salaries etc of judges.
126Appointment of acting chief justice.
127Appointment of adhoc judges.
128Attendance of retired judges at sitting of the Supreme Court.
129Supreme Court to be a court of record.
130Seat of Supreme Court.
131Original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
131AExclusive jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in regard to questions as to the constitutional validity of Central Laws (Repealed).
132Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from high courts in certain cases.
133Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from high courts in regard to civil matters.
134Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in regard to criminal matters.
134ACertificate for appeal to the Supreme Court.
135Jurisdiction and powers of the federal court under existing law to be exercisable by the Supreme Court.
136Special leave to appeal by the Supreme Court.
137Review of judgement or orders by the Supreme Court.
138Enlargement of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
139Conferment on the Supreme Court of powers to issue certain writs.
139ATransfer of certain cases.
140Ancillary powers of Supreme Court.
141Law declared by Supreme Court to be binding on all courts.
142Enforcement of decrees and orders of Supreme Court and orders as to discovery, etc.
143Power of President to consult Supreme Court.
144Civil and judicial authorities to act in aid of the Supreme Court.
144ASpecial provisions as to disposal of questions relating to constitutional validity of laws (Repealed).
145 Rules of court, etc.
146Officers and servants and the expenses of the Supreme Court.

Comptroller and Auditor General of India

Article no. 
148Comptroller and Auditor General of India
149Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor General
150Form of accounts of the Union and of the states.
151Audit reports


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