Biology and its applications

Notes to remember
Karnataka is the largest producer of coffee in India.
Tea plants thrive best in acidic soils with average rainfall above 150 cm and temperature between 20-30oC.
The maximum height that a tea plant can attain in nature is more than 40 feet.
The most important stimulant in tea leaves is caffeine.
The International Rice Research Institute is based in Philippines.
Turpentine is obtained from pine.
Some plants growing in nitrogen deficient soils feed upon insects for their nitrogen requirements. Example of such insect eating plants are Bladderwort and Butterwort.
The Red sea derives its name from the red bloom caused by a blue-green alga.
Sugar was a rare commodity in Europe till the middle ages.
Fruits from coconut and silk cotton plants are sources of commercial fibres.
The smallest living cell is that of a mycoplasma.
Nostoc, the blue-green alga, is included under the Monera kingdom/division.
The cell organelles that are not found in a bacterial cell are glyoxysomes, lysosomes and mitochondria.
Bacteria are among the smallest living organisms in the world. However, they multiply very rapidly. Under optimal conditions a bacterial cell usually divides every 20 minutes. If this rate of multiplication continues uninhibited for 24 hours, a single bacterium will produce a bacterial mass upto eight million tons.
The plant hormone 'ethylene' controls fruit ripening.
Vertebrates that excrete ammonia as the end product of proteins are fishes and mammals.
Few vertebrates like turtles and tortoises, birds are without teeth.
The average ratio of white blood corpuscles to red blood corpuscles in the adult humans is 1:700.
Labourers who do hard manual work develop thick skin on their palms and soles which is due to thick epidermis.
Leather is a derivative of dermis only.
Enamel covers the crown of the teeth.
The digestive products of herbage consisting of cellulose in ship are fatty acids.
Half cooked potatoes , if eaten with food, are not digested. This is because starch granules in semi-cooked potatoes are coated with cellulose, in turn, is not digested.
Premature fruit fall results in significant loss of yield in some cases. This can be stopped by Auxin sprays.
Exposure to carbon monoxide (from coal gas) is extremely dangerous and can kill a patient because COHb is stable compound and thus deprives blood of its ability to transport oxygen.
Cuba lost its title of Sugar Bowl of the world after Castro rose to power. Now Brazil is the sugar bowl of the world i.e. largest producer of sugar.
Jute is widely used as the cheapest fiber after cotton.
Heart murmur is due to a leaky valve.
We lose consciousness if blood flow to the brain is cutoff for more than 5 seconds.
Ghibelline plant hormone is involved in blotting of the rosette plant.
A particular cell organelle is sometimes referred to as the 'suicide bag' because it contains certain enzymes that can break down the cell components or even the whole cell. That cell organelle is lysosomes.
A new technique in medical science that is non-invasive, does not utilize radiation and gathers biochemical information without time-consuming chemical analysis is Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
Freshly passed urine has hardly any smell but when it is allowed to stand, it develops a strong ammonical odour owing to conversion of urea to ammonia by bacteria.
The testes normally descend into the scrotum about the time of birth.
Menopause usually occurs between 45 to 50 years.
In humans, ovarian follicles reach maturity from the beginning of a menstrual cycle in 10 to 14 days.
Goral and serow are goat like mammals.
The only ape found in India is Hoolock Gibbon.
Dolphins are closely related to Whales and Porpoises.
The largest of all the wild cattle in the world is Indian Bison and Gaur.
Turtle has flippers.
Tortoise and water snake do not have flippers.
The largest of the mammal that lays eggs is duck-billed platypus.
Deadliest venomus snakes of India are king Cobra, common Krait, Russel's Viper.
Bacteriophages are viruses infecting bacteria.
W. M. Stanley is the scientist who first isolated a virus in pure crystalline form was awarded a Nobel prize for his contribution.
Much of our present day knowledge in molecular genetics has been obtained by using bacterium 'E. Coli'. If we were to collect samples of this bacterium, we should look for it in human intestine.
A bacterium divides every minute and takes an hour to fill a cup. It will take 59 minutes to fill half the cup.
Beadle and Tatum proposed the one gene one enzyme hypothesis which states that genes control heredity through their control on enzyme synthesis and that one gene controls the synthesis of one enzyme.
Gene, the basic unit of heredity, was first synthesized in the laboratory by Arthur Kornberg.
Gregor Mendel is often referred to as the Father of Genetics since he first enunciated the Principles of Heredity. His experimental material was pea plant.
A pair of chromosomes determines sex in human beings and therefore, these chromosomes are called sex chromosomes.
The name given for other chromosomes is autosomes.
Haemoplilia and Phenylketonuria diseases are heredity in nature.
Anaemia and Leukemia diseases are not heredity in nature.
A. E. Garrod first established that some human diseases are genetically controlled.
Huntington's disease and Marfan Syndrome are genetic disorders in man caused by a dominant gene.
If an old tree is cut transversely, distinct growth rings are visible and it is possible to calculate the age of a tree by counting such rings. These rings are most prominent in temperate plants.
In some arctic and alpine regions, the snow appears red. The 'red snow' phenomenon is caused by the growth of an alga.
Microbes involved in biological nitrogen fixation are Anabaena, Clastridium and Nostoc.
Red tides have often visited the west coast of Florida resulting in the death of hundreds of millions of fish. Such tides are caused by red dinoflagellates.
Nori has been a favourite Japanese food for centuries. This is prepared/ obtained from a red alga.
The red rust of tea is caused by green alga.
Lichen is a symbiotic association between an alga and fungus.
Some plants develop fruits without fertilization. This phenomenon is called parthenocarpy.
Litmus is obtained from lichen.
Plants producing allergenic pollen grains are wind pollinated.
Hay fever is caused by pollen allergy.
'Sulphur shower' is discharge of large quantities of Pinus pollen grains into the air forming yellowish clouds.
Green plants respite all the time, like animals, but the rate of photosynthesis during the day is much higher than the rate of respiration.
Cinnamon, clove and turmeric are not obtained from roots.
Clove spices is obtained from flower buds.
Brown rot of potatoes and Tundu disease of wheat are plant diseases.
Alexander Fleming, a microbiologist while working at St. Mary's hospital in London, discovered the wonder drug 'penicillin'. The first clinical test for this drug were conducted in the year 1941.
The antibiotic penicillin is obtained from fungus.
The antibiotic ampicillin is semi-synthetic drug.
The first fungicide discovered for plant diseases was Bordeaux mixture.
One of the greatest famines of the nineteenth century suffered by the Irish people which led to over 1 million death due to starvation was caused by a fungal infection of the potato crop. The disease it caused was late blight of potatoes.
The water core disease of apples is caused by high temperature.
The necrotic ring spot disease of stone fruits (cherry, peach, plum, etc.) is caused by virus.
The witch-weed disease of plants like sugarcane and rice is caused by an angiospermic parasite.
Plant diseases like Foot rot of paddy and Tikka disease of peanut are caused by Fungi.
Red stripe of sugarcane is a bacterial disease.
The red rot disease of sugarcane is caused by a fungus.
The Indian Agriculture Research Institute is also called PUSA Institute beacuse it was first established at Pusa, Bihar.
The whiptail disease of cauliflowers is caused by mineral deficiency.

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