Chemical Bonding

Notes to remember
The origin of intermolecular forces is because of
> attraction between polar molecules.
> forces between permanent dipole and induced dipole.
> dispersion forces due to distortion of electron clouds under the influences of nucleus of atoms.
H2O exists in liquid state whereas H2S in gaseous state because hydrogen bond exists in water and does not exist in H2S.
The dipole moment helps to predict whether a molecule is polar or non-polar.
Alcohol is polar solvent.
Ionic compounds are insoluble in non-polar solvents.
The bond which is present in water molecules is hydrogen bond.
The octet rule is not valid for BF3 molecule.
The type of bonds present in CuSO4.5H2O are electrovalent bond, covalent bond, coordinate bond and hydrogen bond.
The number of valence electrons in the O2- is 8.
In the covalent bond, electrons are equally shared by participating atoms.
An atom of sodium loses one electron and chlorine atom accepts one electron. This results int the formation of sodium chloride molecule. This type of molecule will be electrovalent.
The four bonds of CCl4 are directed in space at an angle of 109O5'.
Pi bond is weaker than a sigma bond.
Triple bond is stronger than a double bond.
Co-ordinate covalent bond is weaker than a covalent bond.
Lattice energy depends on the size of the ions and their charge.
Ionic compounds are insoluble in alcohol.
Ionic compounds in the solid state are bad conductors of electricity.
NaOH contains both ionic bond and covalent bond.
Ionic bond comes into existence by the transference of electrons between the participating atoms.
The atom losing electron changes into cation while the other atom gaining electron is converted into anion.
Examples of ionic bonds are NaCl, KCl, MgF2, CaCl2.
Geometrical shape of water molecule is angular.
Geometrical shape of ammonia molecule is pyramid.
Geometrical shape of carbon dioxide is linear.
Geometrical shape of methane is tetrahedral.
A metallic bond is electrostatic in nature.
When two isomeric liquid compounds, 'A' and 'B' form H-bonding, are heated. Compound 'A' boils at lower temperature than 'B', we can infer that Intramolecular H-bonding is present in 'A'.
The shape of carbon dioxide is linear.
Probability of finding the electron in the bonding molecular orbital is more than combining atomic orbitals.
The shape of the ethylene (ethene) molecule is coplanar triangular.
The methane molecule has four single covalent bonds.
All single bonds are sigma bonds.
Multiple bonds contain one sigma bond only, the other bonds are pi bonds.
Pi bond is never formed alone.
Alcohols, organic acids, amines are soluble in water due to presence of H-bonding.
Ionic solids are hard and brittle and have generally high melting points and can be melted to from liquids that are electrical conductors.
Hydrogen bond is the strongest of the non-ionic intermolecular bonds.
All hydrogen bonding molecules have dipole interactions.
Carbon tetrachloride has no net dipole moment because of its regular tetrahedral structure.
When a chemical bond is formed, there is decrease in potential energy.
van der Waal's forces are the weakest bonds.
In ammonia, H-N-H bond angle is 106.70.
Cation is formed when atom losses electrons.
In double covalent bond there is sharing of 4 electrons.
Covalent compounds are generally insoluble in water.
Electrovalent compounds conduct current in fused state.
An electrovalent compound is made up of electrically charged atoms or group of atoms.
The number of sigma bonds in hydrogen molecule is 1.
The number of pi bonds in nitrogen molecule is 2.
The maximum number of hydrogen bonds in a water molecule is four.

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