Legal Glossary- India

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Alamatti Dam
The Almatti Dam is a dam project on the Krishna River in North Karnataka. Almatti dam is the main reservoir of the Upper Krishna project, an irrigation project. Almatti is at the edge of Bijaput and Bagalkot districts. But geographically, it is included in Bijapur district. Large areas of Bagalkot district have been submerged due to dam back waters. The height of Almatti dam was been restricted to 519.66 meters by the Supreme Court. Any increase in the height of Alamatti will be owned and will be held responsible by Karnataka Government. The Krishna river conflict between Andhra, Karnataka and Maharashtra has been resolved by the Supreme Court and Almatti Dam is authorised to rise the height of the dam to 524 m.

Aliyar Reservoir
Aliyar reservoir is located near Pollachi town in Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu. The Dam is located in the foothills of Valparai, in the Anamalai Hills of the Western Ghats. The dam offers some ideal gateways including a park, garden, aquarium, play area and a mini Theme-park maintained by Tamil Nadu Fisheries Corporation for visitors enjoyment. The scenery is beautiful, with mountains surrounding three quarters of the reservoir. Aliyar lake receives water from Upper Aliyar reservoir through the hydroelectric power station in Navamali and the Parambikulam reservoir through a contour canal.

Amaravati Dam
Amaravati Dam is at Amaravati Nagar, 25 km from Udumalpet, located in Indira Gandhi Wildlife Scantuary in Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu. The Amaravati reservoir was created by this steep dam. It was primarily built for irrigation and flood control and now also has 4 megawatts of electric generating capacity installed. It is notable for the significant population of Mugger Crocodiles living in its reservoir and catchment basin. The dam was built in 1957 during the K. Kamaraj administration across the Amaravati River about 25 km upstream and south from Tirumoorthy Dam. Capacity of the dam has shrunk due to siltation of the reservoir.

Amarnath Cave
Situated in the Greater Himalayas in the Anantnag District of Kashmir, Amarnath Cave is located over 3000 m above the sea level. A natural limestone cave in Bhairawa Ghati-Hills, 47 km northeast of Pahalgam in South Kashmir, where a stalagmite of ice in the shape of a Shivalling is formed during the Hindu Samvat months of Asadh-Shravana (July-August). The place is situated at a height of 5,280 metres, and is accessible with great difficulty, by the Pahalgam and the Baltal (Sonmarg) routes. Thousands of pilgrims visit these caves in the month of July to have the Darshan of Shivalings. Shravan festival is held to celebrate the formation of the ice shivling on the full moon day.

Baglihar Dam
Baglihar Dam is a run-of-the-river power project on the Chenab River in Southern Doda district, J&K. It is a 900 MW, hydro electric power project. It is the first state owned power project of J&K, conceived in 1992, approved in 1996. The first phase of Baglihar Dam was completed in 2004. India and Pakistan have resolved at the meeting of the Permanent Indus Water Commission the issue of water flows in the Chenab River being affected during the initial filling of the Baglihar dam in 2008. The project is very crucial to ensure the sustainable development of the economy of the people of J&K.

Banasagar Dam
Banasagar Dam is a multipurpose river valley project on Son River situated in Ganga Basin in Madhya Pradesh envisaging both irrigation and hydroelectric power generation. The project has been named as "Banasagar" after Bana Bhatt, the renowned Sanskrit scholar of 7th century, who is believed to have hailed from this region.

Banasura Sagar Dam
Banasura Sagar Dam is in the Wayanad District. This Dam, which impounds the Karamanathodu tributary of the Kabini River, is part of the Inidan Banasurasagar Project consisting of a dam and a canal project and satisfy the demand for irrigation and drinking water in a region known to have water Wayanad District of Kerala in the Western Ghats. It is the largest earthern dam in India and the 2nd largest in Asia.

Bargi Dam
Bargi Dam is on the Narmada River in the Jabalpur District. It is one of the first completed Dam out of the chain of 30 major dams to be constructed on Narmada River in Madhya Pradesh. Two major irrigation projects, named Bargi Diversion Project and Rani Avantibai Lodhi Sagar Project, have been developed by Bargi Dam. The dam construction work started in 1974 and was completed in 1990 when the dam was filled to its complete capacity.

Bari Doab Canal
The Upper Bari Doab Canal derives its water from the Ravi River at Madhopur Barrage in Gurdaspur district. It was opened in 1879. The total length of the main canal is 520 km. The Canal irrigates about 3.5 lakh hectares of agricultural land in the districts of Gurdaspur and Amritsar in Punjab. The total length of the canal along with its distributaries is 4900 km.

Bhakra Dam
Bhakra Dam is situated on the Sutlej river near the border between Punjab and Himachal Pradesh. It is the largest multipurpose project of India, jointly launched by Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan. It is named after two dams built at Bhakra and Nangal on the river Sutlej, a tributary of Indus River. Bhakra Dam is located at the foot hills of Shiwalik in Himachal Pradesh and is the highest concrete gravity dam in Asia. The dam has played in important role in checking the floods of river Sutlej. The Nangal Dam forms a 6 km long artificial lake. It is the first prestigious multipurpose project of independent India constructed in state of Punjab across river Sutlej and irrigates 13.35 lakh hectares annually. Its hydropower generation is significant for North Indian Grid. The dam seems to be tilting because of siltation in the reservoir.

Bhavanisagar Reservoir
The Bhavanisagar dam and reservoir, also called Lower Bhavani Dam, is located on the Bhavani river between Mettupalayam and Sathyamangalam in Erode District, Tamil Nadu. The dam is situated some 16 km west to Satyamangalam and 36 km north-east to Mettuppalayam and 35 km from Gobichettipalayam, 70 km from Erode and 75 km from Coimbatore. The dam is considered to be among the biggest earthen dams in the country.

Borra Caves
The Borra Caves, also called Borra Guhalu in Telugu language (' Borra' means something that has bored into the ground and 'guhalu' means caves), are located on the East Coast, in the Ananthagiri hills of the Araku valley (with hill ranges elevation varying from 800 m to 1300 m of the Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh. The Caves, one of the largest in the country, at an elevation of about 705 m, distinctly exhibit a variety of impressive spelethems (pictured) ranging from very small to big and irregularly shaped, stalactites and stalagmites. The Caves are basically Karstic lime stone structure extending to a depth of 80 m (considered the deepest cave in India).

Bursar Dam
Bursar dam site is located near village Hanzal on river Marusudar which is one of the major right bank tributary of river Chenab, in the Doda district of J&K. The Bursar Hydroelectric project is a storage project in which the flow of water can be regulated not only to the benefit of this project but all downstream projects i.e. Pakal Dul, Dul Hasti, Rattle, Baglihar, Sawalkot and Salal Hydroelectric projects, thereby enhancing the potential of all downstream schemes. J&K, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Chandigarh and Delhi are the beneficiary states (Union territories).

Champaner Pavagarh
Champaner Pavagadh Archeological Park, inscribed as a World Heritage Center by UNESCO in the year 2004, is an ancient sacred site in Panchmahals District of Gujarat. This park has been listed as one among the hundred most endangered monuments on the World Monuments Watch List. Recent excavations have unearthed ancient fortifications, palaces, and other relics of 8th to 14th centuries. Also included are the ruins of the 15th century of capital of Gujarat. All of these are characterized by a subtle blend Hindu and Muslim architectural style. The park is a sacred place for Hindus, who throng in large numbers at the Kalikamata Temple located on top of the Pavagadh Hill.

Dholavira
An ancient city, and locally known as Kotada Timba Prachin Mahanagar, Dholavira, is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India, belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. It is located on the Khadir bet island in the Kutch Desert Wildlife Sanctuary, Great Rann of Kutch and Kachchh district of Gujarat. The site is surrounded by water in the monsoon season. One of the unique features of Dholavira is the sophisticated water conservation system of channels and reservoirs, the earliest found anywhere in the world and completely built out of stone, of which 3 are exposed.

Ellora
Ellora Caves, also spelled as Elura, is a series of 34 magnificent rock-cut temples. They are located near the village of Ellora 30 km northwest of Aurangabad and 80 km southwest of Ajanta Caves. The Ellora complex was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site nin 1983. Ellora is an archaeological site, built by the Rashtrakuta rulers. Ellora represents the epitome of Indian rock-cut architecture. The 34 "caves" - actually structures excavated out of the vertical face of the Charanandri hill - being Buddhist, Hindu and Jain rock-cut temples and monasteries, were built between the 5th century and 10th century. The views of the monolithic Kailasa Temple and Parshwanath Temple are breathtaking. Ellora, a historic village in Maharashtra, is 29 km from Aurangabad and 3 km north of Khuldabad. The village was named in memory of the great Jain saint, Acharya Ellaacharaya. It was here that Aurangzeb, the 6th Mughal Emperor, was buried. Bibi-ka-Maqbara, Siddharth Garden in Aurangabad and Dynaeshwar Udyan in Paithan are other nearby attractions.

Kandagiri Caves
Udayagiri and Khandagiri caves are partly natural and partly artificial caves of archaeological historical and religious importance near the city of Bhubaneshwar. The caves are situated on two hills Udayagiri and Khandagiri, mentioned as Kumari Parvat in Hathigumpha inscription and face each other across the road. The caves of Udayagiri and Khandagiri, called Lena in the inscriptions, were dug out mostly during the reign of Kharavela for the abode of Jaina ascetics. The most important of this group is Ranigumpha in Udayagiri which is a double storeyed monastery.

Line of Actual Control (LAC)
The boundary lies between India and China. The 540 km long cease fire boundary in Jammu and Kashmir created in 1949 that divides Azad Kashmir (POK) from the rest of Kashmir.

McMohan Line
McMohan Line is the boundary northeastern border of India and Tibet (now a part of China) that was demarcated by Henry McMohan, Secretary to the Government of India, in 1913 as a part of Shimla treaty between the two governments.

Mehrauli
Mehrauli was founded by the King Mihir Bhoja of the Gujara-Pratihara Dynasty. The Lal Kot fort was constructed by the Gurjar Tanwar. Prithviraj Chauhan further expanded the fort and called it Qila Rai Pithora. Qutub-ud-din Aybak in 1206 enthroned himself as the first Sultan of Delhi. In 12th century Jain scriptures, the place is also mentioned as Yogninipura, noticeable by the presence of "Yogmaya Temple", near the Qutub Minar complex, believed to be built by the Pandavas. Many dynasties contributed Mehruli's architecture significantly. The most visible piece of architecture remains the Qutub complex. It is now a UNESCO world heritage site and the venue for the annual Qutub Festival. Mausoleum of Sufi saint, Khwaja Qutubuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki is also situated here and the venue for the annual Phoolwalon-ki-sair Festival. The dargah complex is also houses graves of later Mughals, baoli or stepwell and Moti Masjid. Balban's tomb is the first true arch in Indo-Islamic architecture. It also includes mosques of Sufi saint Shaikh Hamid bin Fazlullah, Shaikh Jamali Kamboh Dihlawi and Adham Khan's Tomb known as Bhulbhulaiyan and the tomb of Muhammad Quli Khan.

Nagarjunasagar
Nagarjunasagar is city and archaeological site in the Guntur district, northeastern Andhra Pradesh, notable for its ancient Buddhist monuments (dating from 1st to 3rd century CE) and for the ancient university (3rd-4th century) where Nagarjuna, the founder of Mahayana school of Buddhism, once taught. The multi-purpose Nagarjuna-Sagar Project on the river Krishna near the then Nandikonda village (now Hill Colony), Peddavoora Mandal, Nalgonda District, is the pride of Telangana. The project was originally conceived by the erstwhile Government of Hyderabad and put forth under the name Lower Krishna Project (Nandikonda site). Nagarjuna Sagar Dam is one of the largest dams buile in India, is located between Guntur of Telangana and Nalagonda districts of Telangana. It is built on the Krishna River. It is one of the earliest hydro electric projects of India. Initial name was "Nandikonda Project" since it was near a small village "Nandikonda" in Nalgonda District and this village completely submerged in the water.

Pachmarhi
Pachmarhi literally means 5 caves. It is a hill station in Madhya Pradesh, also known for the Pachmarhi Cantonment. It is widely known as "Satpura ki Rani" (Queen of Satpura), situated at a height of 1000 m in a valley of the Satpura Range in Hoshanagabad district. The highest point in the central India region and the Vindhya and Satpura Range, Dhupgarh at 1100 m is located here. Rajat Prapat (Big Fall), Bee Fall, Pandav Caves, Bada Mahadev, Gupt Mahadev, Apsara Falls, Jatashankar, Duchess Fall are some of the places of tourist interest here.

Palk Strait
Lying between Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka, it separates India and Sri Lanka. The Palk Strait has coral formations, Pearl fisheries and great diversity in marine life. A project to connect Palk Strait with the Gulf of Mannar is under consideration which, however, has been opposed by a section of the society. The important religious places like Rameshwaram lies in its southern part. Geopolitically, it is important and frequently visited by illegal migrants.

Pamba Strait
It lies between Pamban Island and Mandapam. It is a cantilever bridge on the Palk Strait which connects the town of Rameswaram on Pamban island to mainland India. The bridge refers to both the road bridge and the cantilever railway bridge, though primarily it means the latter. Opened in 1914, it was India's first sea bridge, and was the longest sea bridge in India till 2010. The rail bridge is for the most part, a conventional bridge resting on concrete peirs, but has a doubt leaf bascule section midway, which can be raised to let ships and barges pass through. On 24 February 2014, the Pamban bridge marked its 100th anniversary.

Radcliffe Line
Radcliffe Line is an international boundary between India and Pakistan demarcated at the time of partition of British India in 1947 by Sir Cyril Radcliffe, Chairman of the Bombay Commission. It makes international border between Pakistan and India in the west part of India (Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat). It also makes international border between east Pakistan (now Bangladesh) and India (West Bengal, Meghalaya, Assam, Tripura and Mizoram).

Rajgir
Rajgir is located in the Nalanda district of Bihar. It is an important pilgrimage centre for Buddhist, Jains and Hindus. According to tradition Jarasandha belonged to Rajgir. He fortified the town by using rubble masonary. Bimbisara is credited to have built the city of Rajgir or Rajagriha, at the foot of Himalayan Terai. According to Mahabharata, Jarasandha, an adversary of the Pandavas, ruled here in ancient times. It was the ancient capital of the Magadha Emperors in the 4th century BC. The site Jivakanravana, (Jivika the court - physician of Buddha) has revealed several elliptical halls. It was at Rajgriha, that the Buddha met Bimbisara, who presented to the Buddha the garden known as the bamboo grove, as a residence for the monks. The bamboo grove became the site of the first Buddhist monastery. Sariputra and Modgallayna, the Buddha's foremost disciples, were converted and accepted into the Sangh order at Rajgir. The first Buddhist Council was held at Rajgir in Saptapurni guha.

Sir Creek
It is a small 60 mile marshy creek, having potential for petroleum deposits, a rich fishing ground, in news for undemarcated marine boundary between India and Pakistan.

Ten Degree Channel
It is a channel that separates the Andaman islands from the Nicobar islands in the Bay of Bengal. The two sets of islands together form Andaman and Nicobar islands. The channel is approximately 150 km wide, running essentially along the east-west orientation. It is so named as it lies on the 10-degree line of latitude, north of the equator.

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