Indian History

Notes to remember
The Harappan Civilization was discovered in the year 1921.
Lothal is a site where dockyard of Indus Valley Civilization were found.
The people of the Indus Valley Civilization usually built their houses of pucca bricks.
The Indus Valley people traded with the Mesopotamians.
The Indus Valley Civilization was Non-Aryan because it was urban.
The Indus Valley Civilization was an advanced urban civilization.
Iron was not known to the Indus Valley people.
It is difficult to say which race Indus Valley people belonged.
The Indus Valley people knew about the agriculture.
The local name of Mohenjodaro is Mound of the Dead.
The Indus Valley Civilization specialized in town planning, architecture and craftsmanship.
The famous figure of a dancing girl found in excavation of Mohenjodaro was made up of bronze.
Giraffe was not known to the Indus Valley Civilization.
Bull, Horse, Elephant were known to the Indus Valley Civilization.
Horse was a rare animal.
Out of the remains excavated in Indus Valley, seals indicate the commercial and economic development.
The earliest city discovered in India was Harappa.
Indus Civilization site Lothal gives the evidence of a dockyard.
The inhabitants of Harappa grew and used cotton.
An advanced water management system of Harappan times has been unearthed at Dholavira.
From Mohenjodaro, remains of wells have been found in houses belonging to the developed stage of the Indus Valley Civilization.
Cotton for textile was first cultivated in India.
Rock cut architecture in Harappan culture context has been found at Dholavira.
Mohenjodaro, Harappa, Ropar and Kalibangan are important places of Indus Valley Civilization.
Harappan people developed planned cities with network of streets and drainage system.
Harappan people knew use of metals.
Construction of Arches was not known to the Harappans.
A copper chariot of Harappan times was discovered at Daimabad.
The famous bull seal of Indus valley civilization was found from Harappa.
Dayaram Sahni discovered the Indus valley civilization.
Cow was not represented on the seals and terracotta art of the Harappan culture.
In the Mesopotamian records, Meluha term was used for the Indus valley (Harappans).
Max Muller was the first European to designate Aryan as a race.
The staple food of Vedic Aryan was milk and its products.
The battle of Mahabharata is believed to have been fought at Kurukshetra for 18 days.
The stages of the life of man in Aryan Society in ascending order of age are:
Brahmacharya -> Grihastha -> Vanaprastha -> Sanyasa.
Panini wrote Sanskrit Grammar.
Periyar river has no mention in Rigveda.
Sindhu, Saraswati and Yamuna rivers are mentioned in Rigveda.
The development of a high stage of abstract thinking is a marked feature of early vedic literature.
Cosmic mystery of creation and records of philosophic doubts about it are a part of the many vedic hymns.
Rigidification of caste system is the major impact of vedic culture on Indian History.
The Shrimad Bhagvad Gita was originally written in Sanskrit language.
'Purushasukta' is found in the Rigveda.
The hymns of Rigaveda are the work of many authors.
The Government of India has decided to declare Ganga as 'National River'.
Patanjali is well-known for the compilation of Yogasutra.
The God who is the most prominent in 'Rigveda' is Indra.
The Rigvedic God Varuna was Guardian of the cosmic order.
Nivi, Paridhan and Adivasa were the different types of garments of the Aryans.
Panini, the first Grammarian of Sanskrit language in India, lived during the 6th-5th century BC.
The works Satyameva Jayate in the state emblem of India have been adopted from Mundak Upanishad.
Upanishad are books on Philosophy.
The expounder of Yoga philosophy was Patanjali.
The great law giver of ancient times was Manu.
The word Gotra occurs for the first time in Rigveda.
Belief in the existence of God is the distinctive feature between a nastika and astika system in India.
Nyaya Darshan was propagated by Gautama.
'Ashtadhyayi' was written by Panini.
The literal meaning of the word Arya is superior.
The 'Manu Smriti' mainly deals with Laws.
Purushmedha i.e. Male Sacrifice is referred to in Shatapatha Brahman.
Vishwamitra composed the Gayatri Mantra.
Author of 'Nayaya Sutra' was Gautam.
The word Aryan means of good family.
Atharvaveda contains an account of magical charms and spells.
The religion of early vedic Aryan was primarily of worship of nature and Yajnas.
The earliest settlement of Aryan tribes were at Sapta Sindhu.
In the early Vedic period, cow was considered to be the most valuable property.
Sarga, Pratisarga, Vansa, Manvantara and Vanshanucharit are the indicators of Puranas.
The Indian King who opposed Alexander was Porus.
The ancient name of North Bihar was Vajji.
In ancient India, the earliest capital of Magadha kingdom was at Rajgir.
When Alexander invaded India, Nandas were the rulers of Magadha.
Ruler Dhanananda of Magadha was the contemporary of Alexander, the great.
Vaishali was the seat of the first Republic of the world in 6th century BC.
The list of sixteen Mahajanapadas is available in Anguttar Nikaya.
Girivarja (Rajgriha) was the first capital of Magadha.
The first republic of the world was established in Vaishali by Lichhavi.
Ajatasatru, early ruler of Magadha murdered his father to ascend the throne and, in turn, was murdered by his own son.
The chronological order of the Magadhan dynasties is:
Haryankas -> Nandas -> Mauryas -> Sungas.
Mahajanapada situated on the bank of the river Godavari was Assaka.
Mahapadmananda was the founder of Nanda dynasty.
Nanda dynasty was ruling over North India at the time of Alexander's invasion.
Milinda is not contemperory of Gautama Buddha.
The ancient town of Takshashila was located between Indus and Jhelum.
Deimachus had not come to India with Alexander.
Nearchus, Onesicritus and Aristobulus had come to India with Alexander.
Lord Buddha breathed his last (Mahaparinirvan) in Kushinagar.
The world's largest monolithic statue of Buddha has been installed in Bamiyan.
Tripitaka is the sacred book of the Buddhists.
Buddha means the enlightened one.
Buddha belonged to the clan Sakya.
The Nalanda University is located in the state of Bihar in India.
Mahavira was born in 6th century BC at Vaishali.
The place 'Pava' is associated with Jainism.
Asvaghosha was the author of 'Buddha Charita'.
Vardhamana Mahavira is also known as Nigantha Nataputra.
The principle that distinguishes Jainism from Buddhism is the attribution of a soul to all beings and things.
Buddha lived approximately at the same time as Confucius.
Buddha's preaching were mainly related to purity of thought and conduct.
The third vehicle in Buddhism is known as Vajrayana.
'Uttar Pradesh' is called the 'Cradle of Buddhism'.
Vardhaman Mahavira was a contemporary of Gautama Buddha.
Gandhara school of art came into existence in Mahayana sect.
In the context of the life of Buddha, the correct chronological sequence of places is:
Lumbini -> Bodh Gaya -> Sarnath -> Kushinagar.
With reference to Indian literary works, Digha Nikaya is an important Buddhist text in Pali.
Jain religious literature was written in Ardhamagadhi.
Mahavira admitted women into the order of his followers.
Right desire is not included in the eight fold path of Buddhism.
Right speech, right contemplation and right conduct are included in the eight fold path of Buddhism.
Gautama Buddha delivered his first sermon, known as Dharma Chakra Pravartan (i.e. turning the wheel of the law) at Sarnath.
Mahavira and his disciples preached non-violence which put an end to wars and promote trade and commerce.
Pitaka and Jataka are branches of Buddhist literature.
Nagarjuna taught the doctrine of Shunyata (Shunyavad).
King Kharavela was an ardent follower of Jainism.
Bhadrabahu is given the credit of carrying Jainism in South India.
In Buddhism, Patimokkha stands for the rules of the Sangha.
Self mortification is not common in Buddhism and Jainism.
The term Ahimsa (non-violence) is common in Buddhism and Jainism but the degree of Ahimsa is different.
Indifference to Vedas and Rejection of rituals are common to both Jainism and Buddhism.
The first Buddhist council was held in Rajgriha.
Mahavira Jaina breathed his last at Pawapuri.
Gautama Buddha was elevated to the position of God by the time of Kanishka.
Mahabodhi Temple has been built at Bodh Gaya where Gautama Buddha attained enlightenment.
Chinese traveller Hiuen-Tsang studied at the university of Nalanda.
The third Buddhist council was held at Pataliputra.
Mahavir Swami was born at Kundagram in kingdom Vaishali.
Sammed Sikhar is considered as a Jain Siddha Kshetra on account of its association with Parsvanatha.
Buddha was born at Lumbini.
The difference between a Chaitya and a Vihara is that Chaitya is a place of worship whereas Vihara is a living place for Buddhist saints.
Kushinagar was the capital of Malla republic.
Mahatma Buddha got Mahaparinirvana at kushinagar.
The doctrine of three jewels - right belief, right conduct and right knowledge - is the crowning glory of Jainism.
The Vikramshila Mahavihara, a great centre of education, was founded by Dharmapala.
Lumbini was the birth place of Buddha is attested by an inscription of Ashoka.
Sarnath is in the state of Uttar Pradesh.
Vikramshila Mahavihara was established by the ruler of Pala Dynasty.
Buddha attained Mahaparinirvana in the republic of the Mallas.
According to Buddhism, there is no soul.
Ajivakas propounded that 'destiny determines everything, man is powerless'.
Lord Buddha preached the four noble truths in the following order:
1) There is suffering.
2) There is cause of suffering.
3) There is cessation of suffering.
4) There is a path leading to the cessation of suffering.
Lord Buddha is known as the light of Asia.
Syadvad (the theory of 'maybe') is a doctrine of Jainism.
The stupa site which is not connected with any incident of Lord Buddha's life is Sanchi.
Prabhasgiri is a pilgrim spot of Jains.
Sudharma is said to have become the chief of the Jain Sangh after the death of Mahavira.
Jivaka, the royal physician of Rajgrih, was the son of the Ganika named as Salavati.
The fourth Buddhist Council was convened during the regime of king Kanishka.
The 'Tripitaka' was written in Pali.
Mahavira was the last tirthankara.
The emphasis of Jainism on non-violence (Ahimsa) prevented agriculturist from embracing Jainism because cultivation involved killing of insects and pests.
Vasumitra presided over the Buddhist Council held during the reign of Kanishka at Kashmir.
In ancient Indian Buddhist monasteries, a ceremony called Pavarana used to be held. It was the confession by monks of their offences committed during their stay in the monasteries during the rainy season.
Vardhaman Mahavira's mother was the daughter of Lichchavi Chief Chetaka.
Gautama Buddha's mother was a princess from the Koliya dynasty.
Parshvanatha, the 23rd Tirthankara belonged to Banaras.
Jainism enjoyed the patronage of the Kalinga King Kharavela in the first century BC.
The Pala rulers of Eastern India were patrons of Buddhism.
Anekantavada is the core theory and philosophy of Jainism.
Mahamastakabhisheka, a great religious event is associated with and done for Bahubali.
Buddhism started declining in India because Buddha was by that time considered as one of the incarnations of Vishnu and thus became a part of Vaishnavism.
Lord Buddha's image is sometimes shown with the hand gesture called 'Bhumisparsha Mudra'. It symbolises Buddha's calling to the Earth to watch over Mara and to prevent Mara from disturbing his meditation, and Buddha's calling of the Earth to witness his purity and chastity despite the temptations of Mara.
The common element among Rajagriha, Vaishali and Pataliputra is that these are the places where Buddhist Councils were held.
Ajivaka sect was associated with Goshala Maskariputra.
Ashokaram monastery was situated at Patliputra.
Mauryan King Ashoka had the name Devanama Piyadasi.
Chanakya, the famous teacher of Chandragupta Maurya was associated with the centre of learning Takshasila.
The Kalinga war brought about a profound change in Ashoka's administrative policy.
Great Stupa at Sanchi is in Madhya Pradesh.
The monk who influenced Ashoka to embrace Buddhism was Upagupta.
Deer does not appear on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka.
Bull, elephant and horse appear on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka.
Chanakya is also known as Vishnugupta.
Megasthenes was an envoy of the king Seleucus.
Among Maurya, Gupta, Kushana and Kanva; Maurya was the oldest dynasty of India.
The division of Mauryan society into seven classes was particularly mentioned in the 'Indica' of Megasthenes.
Kautilya's 'Arthashastra' is a book on principles and practices of statecraft.
The valleys of Sindhu, Ganga and Jamuna were brought together for the first time under one political authority by Chandragupta Maurya.
Patliputra does not have Ashokan edict.
Girnar, Kandhar and Topra have Ashokan edicts.
Rajuka was appointed by Ashoka to administer justice in his empire.
The reasons that led to the disintegration and decline of the Mauryan Empire are:
1) Brahmanical revolt
2) King Ashoka's pacifist policies
3) Invasions from outside.
4) Weakness of Ashoka's successors.
Chandragupta Maurya was a contemporary of Alexander, the Great.
The notion of Saptanga that was introduced in 'Arthashastra' includes kings, territory, administration and treasury.
Ashoka says in his Rock Edict XIII that he turned to Dhamma because he witnessed much misery at Kalinga war.
Ashoka belonged to Maurya dynasty.
13th Rock Edict of Ashoka provides a description of the horrors of Kalinga War.
The head of district (Ahara), the principal co-ordinator of the revenue and the officer-in-charge of general and military functions in his jurisdiction during the Mauryan Empire was known as Rajuka.
A Buddhist council during the reign of Ashoka was held at Pataliputra.
Kautilya's 'Arthashastra' deals with the aspects of political policies.
Chandragupta Maurya figures prominently in the book of Vishakhadatta.
The description of the administration of Pataliputra is available in Indica.
The Mauryan ruler Bindusara conquered the Deccan.
Language used in the inscriptions of Ashoka is Prakrit.
Megasthenes divided the Indian society in seven categories.
Maurya ruled over Magadha after the Nanda dynasty.
The most famous educational centre during the period of Mauryan age was Taxila.
Vishakhadatta was the writer of 'Mudrarakshasa'.
'Indica' is the name of the Megasthenes's book.
Kautilya's 'Arthashastra' is divided in 15 adhikaranasis.
William Jones identified the name Sandrocottus as Chandragupta Maurya.
James Princep deciphered the Brahmi inscription of Ashoka for the first time.
The last Mauryan emperor was Brihadratha.
Kautilya was the Prime Minister of Chandragupta Maurya.
The South Indian Kingdom 'Satvahan' is not mentioned in the Ashokan inscription.
South Indian kingdoms like Chola, Pandya and Satiyaputa are mentioned in the Ashokan inscription.
Chanakya was known in his childhood by the name Vishnugupta.
An Ashokan edict is located in Uttaranchal at Kalsi.
Ashok constructed Sanchi Stupa.
Chandragupta defeated Seleucus, the administrator of Sindh and Afghanistan appointed by Alexander.
The name of the Ashoka has been mentioned in the inscription of Minor edict of Maski.
In ancient India, Bindusara assumed the title of Amitraghata.
Chandragupta Maurya defeated Seleucus.
Gurjara inscription contains the name of Ashoka.
Bhabru edict, Rock edict XIII, Rummendei pillar inscriptions do not mention the name of Ashoka.

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